Tag Archives: World War II

Is Evil Banal? Part 2

20 Jun

Image

Hitler in 1933. (via Wikimedia commons)

In the movie Hannah Arendt, the 20th century philosopher wrestled with the problem of what to make of the unimpressive Adolf Eichmann, on trial for organizing the exportation of Jews during World War II to concentration camps. But as the movie explored her thoughts, I began thinking, too. I thought about how it is a normal human tendency to want to follow rules , to do meaningful work, and to belong.

Even though Nazism was built on a twisted fairy tale woven by a madman, Germany in the 1930s was a creative but unsettled place. The modernness of art and architecture (such as the Bauhaus movement) was intimidating and strange. Berlin was filled with decadence. Too many people were unemployed. Economic troubles ran deep. Many were bitter about losing the First World War. People needed jobs. They wanted dignity. They wanted to belong. And the Nazis were efficient about providing these normal human needs. Individually, people got jobs scheduling trains or working in munitions factories or making poison gas. But each part of the operation was so fragmented from the other that many people but blinders on and thought only of their small part of the larger picture. They did not ask where the trains were going. They did not ask why the poison gas was made. As Arendt says (in the film) about Eichmann, “He was simply unable to think.” But all of these pieces, the handiwork of all these hardworking laborers, was to create one of the most evil forces the world has ever known.

Another example of this tendency of human beings to just want to do their jobs and follow the law is the behavior of the people of Netherlands during World War II. Perhaps because Anne Frank’s secret Annex is so famous, or because The Netherlands seems like such a hip, open, friendly society, many people are under the impression that the Netherlands was a safe haven for Jews, with noble Dutch farmers hiding Jewish families in their basements and haylofts. Indeed, the Netherlands had been a haven for Jews for centuries. But during the war, 75 percent of the Jews in the Netherlands were taken away and murdered—the highest rate in any Western European country. According to an article, in Holocaust and Genocide Studies,  “The Holocaust in the Netherlands and the Rate of Jewish Survival” by Marnix Croes (http://www.yadvashem.org/yv/en/education/languages/dutch/pdf/article_croes.pdf) “Of the 140,000 people. . . . whom the Nazis considered “full” Jews in 1941, only 27 percent survived the occupation. Yet in Belgium, 60 percent of the approximately 66,000 Jews survived, and in France, 75 percent of the approximately 320,000 Jews escaped death at the hands of the Nazis.”

Not only were they betrayed in great numbers, the Jews were frequently rounded up by Dutch police. As Manfred Gerstenfeld wrote in Wartime and Postwar Dutch Attitudes Toward the Jews: Myth and Truth (Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs) (http://www.jcpa.org/jl/vp412.htm) “Since The Netherlands was well-administered and well-documented, it was relatively easy to round up the Jews. Orders were given by the occupiers and executed by the Dutch authorities.”

He adds,” After the flight of the Queen and the government (to England) . . .the Germans could count on the assistance of the greater part of the Dutch administrative infrastructure (to catch Jews). . . .  Dutch policemen rounded up the families. . . Trains of the Dutch railways staffed by Dutch employees transported the Jews to . . . death camps. . . .  Eichmann later said ‘The transports run so smoothly that it is a pleasure to see.’”

Efficiency. Hard work. A job well-done. These are important things. But what Hannah Arendt alludes to is that it is not enough to follow the law. It is not enough to do your job well. It is important to put it into a larger context. You cannot rely on your society alone as a moral compass. You, as an individual, are responsible for your little piece of what your society does.

Writing prompts: Is there some wrong you’d like to right? Do you believe your work is a force for good in the world?

But that’s not all . . . See Part 3 for more

Is Evil Banal? Part 1

19 Jun

Strangely enough, nobody else seemed too eager to join me to see the new movie Hannah Arendt. Go to a movie about a philosopher’s musings on the nature of evil? What a laff riot! And action! Can’t wait for the special effects! But it was one of the best movies I have ever seen. It was dramatic, lively, and so full of ideas that I found myself writing down sentences in the darkness of the theater.

Jewish-German-American political theorist Hannah Arendt coined the term “the banality of evil” when she covered the Adolf Eichmann trial in Jerusalem for the New Yorker and later a book. I was very curious about this idea. As a card-carrying member of the Formerly Bullied Club, I have experienced my own small measure of evil, and from my point of view, “banality” doesn’t cover the sheer spiteful glee my tormentors used toward me. I made it out of the leafy suburb where I was bullied alive and well, and although I don’t think bullying =Holocaust, it’s important to remember that the cruelty of bullying can be fatal. A few days ago, a 12-year-old beauty, Gabrielle Molina, hanged herself on a ceiling fan at home in Queens, New York, after months of harassment.

Therefore I was very interested in—and somewhat dismissive of—the idea of how Hannah Arendt could find the idea of evil as banal. But it was much more complex than that. It was complex because much of her thought was formed by philosopher Martin Heidegger, her teacher and lover, who became an active member of the Nazi Party and never publically renounced his connection to it. But was the part of him that allowed him to become of the 20th century’s most influential philosophers the same part of him that allowed him become a Nazi? Can brilliant people also be stupid in other areas of their lives? I ask that question sincerely because I don’t yet understand enough of Heidegger to make a judgment on that point. Would Arendt—who had suffered as a prisoner in a Nazi camp herself—be compromised by that association, or would there be a part of his thinking that could form a useful substructure or framework for thinking for his most brilliant students, such as Hannah Arendt?

The film shows Arendt’s happy life in New York, rich in friends, love, and work. However, the substance of the movie is about Arendt’s coverage of the famous trial of Adolf Eichmann. Eichmann managed many of the logistical elements of how to send Jews to concentration camps, and had escaped to Argentina after World War II, until he was captured by Mossad operatives and brought to trial in Jerusalem in 1960. The film shows real footage of the trial interspersed with Arendt’s (as played by brilliant German actress Barbara Sukowa) reactions to it. In conversation and thought she wrestles with the idea of how a mediocre man such as Eichmann, who would readily admit to making bureaucratic decisions about (I believe) the number or schedule of trains that were being sent off to death camps, but who would take no responsibility for where they went—“That was another department.” And, as he had pointed out,he had taken an oath to follow Hitler and “an oath is an oath.” Furthermore, as in the Nuremberg Trials, he had not broken any laws—at least, the laws of his own nation at the time. In fact, he had followed the law with enthusiasm. What right, he asserted, did Israel have to try him?

For more, see part 2.

Writing Prompt: Do you think it’s fair to try people for war crimes if they were legal at the time? And how do you think a truly brilliant thinker could be caught up in Nazism?

What happened to Japan in World War II? Part I

16 Oct

In my writing group, we just finished a book called Hotel on the Corner of Bitter and Sweet, a slight but pleasant volume about a Japanese girl taken away to an internment camp and a Chinese-American boy. It was hard for one highly intelligent but extremely busy member of the group to understand why the Chinese-American father was so angry at the Japanese and were glad that they were taken in to internment camp. I made a comment about how utterly horrible the Japanese were in World War II, especially to their fellow Asians, and that they were vicious to the Chinese. And this was odd, almost ahistorical behavior for a nation whose chief Buddhist goddess is Kannon, the goddess of compassion (I know I’m not putting this right, but Kannon is very important), a country where no one pours for him or herself, a country of incredible civility and cooperation and orderliness.

There are many reasons why the Japanese got involved in World War II. Fear of embargo of certain essential supplies such as oil. Modern life. A re-mythologizing of their ancient native faith, Shinto, which is so mysterious and earthy that it could only be codified by someone with an agenda. A sense of pride in their past as Samurai. Certain codes about manhood. Actual insulting and inappropriate behavior by the west. Colonialism in Asia (The Dutch were no angels in Indonesia, for instance, nor were the British in India). The list goes on and on, but none of it seems to add up to the value of a single life. It doesn’t seem to answer any clearcut question—at least not to my admittedly limited understanding.

I myself am not a pacifist—I do not believe the division between slave states and free states would EVER have been resolved without the Civil War, for instance, and that deep scar, even though it unleashed a thousand poisons that still last today, stopped and partially paid the blood price of the deepest sin our nation has ever officially sanctioned. Because I love to be American (thank you, 18th century Colonists for fighting the Revolutionary War, BTW), and because of the resetting of the earliest mistakes of our union were made through the bloody process of war, I can’t say war is never justified.

However, I can say that a certain madness can overtake the most civilized peoples in the world, and things that are nonsense can be converted into brilliant justifications. Both individuals and whole nations can fall prey to the power of story—about how they are oppressed. As C., the woman in my reading group said, “The people I know who are the most prejudiced are the ones who can give you the best reasons why.” The power of the human mind, and especially for highly intelligent minds, to fall prey to “logical” reasoning that is pure madness is one that I want to cover in a future discussion about neurology/psychology. In the meantime, let me just say that, having thought about the ideas of Carl Jung a lot lately, my belief about Japanese behavior during world war II is that a madness overcame them. Their shadow came out. Here was this modest, sharing, deeply artistic people whose idea of art came from an exquisite patience with seeing the natural world (including, for example, wistfulness at the change of time (mono no aware), who became warmongering, mass murdering, torturing, killers, primarily of other Asians. Are there parallels to the brilliant, civilized Germans? Of course. And have members of other nations shamed themselves in their treatments of other people? Oh, hi there, Europe! And yes, you, too, America! And  on and on.

BUT. Back to the Japanese. I want to be concrete here because I think the subject warrants it. And so I will save that for another post.

Writing Prompt: What makes some nations lose their souls in wartime?